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Edwin McMasters Stanton

Edwin McMasters Stanton

Male 1814 - 1869

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  • Name  Edwin McMasters Stanton 
    Born  19 Dec 1814  Steubenville, Jefferson, Ohio, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender  Male 
    Died  24 Dec 1869  Washington , D.C. Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID  I15525  My Genealogy
    Last Modified  15 Dec 2015 

    Father  David Stanton,   b. 1 May 1788, Carteret, North Carolina, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Dec 1827, Steubenville, Jefferson, Ohio, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Mother  Lucy Latham Norman,   b. 1793, Virginia, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 Nov 1873 
    Married  25 Feb 1814  Jefferson, Ohio, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID  F4011  Group Sheet

    Family 1  Mary Ann Lamson,   b. 1813,   d. 13 Mar 1844, Steubenville, Jefferson, Ohio, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married  31 Dec 1836  Columbus, Franklin, Ohio, United States Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Lucy Stanton,   b. 1837, Steubenville, Jefferson, Ohio, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1841, Steubenville, Jefferson, Ohio, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
     2. Edwin Lampson Stanton,   b. 12 Aug 1842, Steubenville, Jefferson, Ohio, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 29 Aug 1877, Washington , D.C. Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified  26 Sep 2005 
    Family ID  F4012  Group Sheet

    Family 2  Ellen Maria Hutchison,   b. 24 Sep 1830, Pittsburgh, Allegheny, Pennsylvania, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Nov 1873, District Of Columbia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married  Jun 1856 
    Children 
     1. Elenor Adams Stanton,   b. 9 May 1857, District Of Columbia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     2. Lewis Hutchison Stanton,   b. 12 Jan 1860, District Of Columbia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Apr 1938, New Orleans, Orleans, Louisiana, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
     3. Bessie B. Stanton,   b. Abt 1863, District Of Columbia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     4. James Hutchison Stanton,   b. 17 Oct 1861, District Of Columbia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Jul 1862, District Of Columbia Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified  19 Mar 2007 
    Family ID  F5339  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 19 Dec 1814 - Steubenville, Jefferson, Ohio, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 31 Dec 1836 - Columbus, Franklin, Ohio, United States Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 24 Dec 1869 - Washington , D.C. Link to Google Earth
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    Edwin Stanton
    Edwin Stanton
    Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory.
    Edwin McMasters Stanton
    Edwin McMasters Stanton
    Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 – December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory.

  • Notes 
    • Edwin Stanton was born in Steubenville, Ohio, to devout Methodist parents. Beginning in childhood, he suffered from asthma throughout his life. After graduating from Kenyon College in 1833, he studied law under a judge. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1835, but had to wait several months until his 21«sup»st«/sup» birthday before he could begin to practice. He developed a very successful legal career in Ohio, then Pittsburgh, and finally Washington, D. C. While in Ohio, Stanton became active in the local antislavery society and was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Harrison county as a Democrat. In 1857, he was appointed by U.S. Attorney General Jeremiah Black to represent the federal government in California land cases. Two years later, he was one of the lead attorneys on the defense team of Congressman Daniel Sickles, who stood accused of murdering his wife's lover. Stanton and his colleagues convinced the jury to acquit Sickles on the grounds of temporary insanity, marking one of the earliest uses of that plea. After the 1860 presidential election, Stanton gave up a lucrative law practice to become Attorney General in the lame-duck presidential administration of James Buchanan. He advised Buchanan to act forcefully against the South, but when the president did not, Stanton clandestinely keep the Republicans, particularly William Henry Seward, informed about White House policy decisions. In 1862, President Lincoln decided to remove the corrupt and ineffective Secretary of War, Simon Cameron, by appointing him Minister to Russia. Seward and Salmon Chase successfully lobbied the President to name Stanton as his new Secretary of War. He once again gave up a prosperous law practice to enter public service. He proved to be a strong and effective cabinet officer, instituting practices to rid the War Department of waste and corruption. When Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney died in October 1864, Stanton wanted to be named as his replacement. Lincoln believed, though, that he was more important to the Union cause as Secretary of War, so the President appointed Chase, instead. Upon the assassination of Lincoln, Stanton uttered the memorable line, "Now he belongs to the ages." It was Stanton who was at the center of the battle to impeach and remove President Andrew Johnson from office. After Lincoln's assassination, Stanton had continued to serve as Johnson's Secretary of War. However, he became vehemently opposed to Johnson's lenient Reconstruction policies, and consequently worked with Republicans to implement Congressional Reconstruction in the South. After first suspending Stanton in August 1867, Johnson fired the Secretary in February 1868. Stanton refused to leave office, claiming job protection under the Tenure of Office Act. He locked himself in the War Department until the Senate voted against the President's removal. Stanton resigned in May 1868 and returned to his private practice. His wish to sit on the Supreme Court appeared to be fulfilled when President Grant appointed him and the Senate confirmed him on the same day, 20 December 1868. He died, however, four days later in Washington, D.C.

      Robert C. Kennedy, HarpWeek
    • (Research):EDWIN M. STANTON
      Edwin McMasters Stanton was born at Steubenville, Ohio, Decem-ber 19, 1815, son of Dr. David and Lucy (Norman) Stanton and grandson of Benjamin and Abigail (Macy) Stanton, who, being Quakers, moved from Massachusetts to North Carolina prior to the Revolutionary war. His father separated from the Quakers in 1815 and made his home in Steubenville, Ohio.
      Edwin M. Stanton attended the district schools and in 1827, upon the death of his father, obtained employment in a book store. He studied in the evenings and entered Kenyon College in 1831, but was obliged to abandon his studies in 1833 for want of means. He then entered a book store in Columbus, Ohio ; studied law and was married December 31, 1836, to Mary Ann, daughter of William Lamson of Columbus. He practiced law in Cadiz, from 1837 to 1839, and in 1838 was prosecuting attorney of Harrison County. In 1839 he returned to Steubenville, where he entered into partnership with Judge Tappan. He was an active supporter of Martin Van Buren for the presidency in 1840 and reporter of the State Supreme. Court from 1841 to 1846. He became one of the leading lawyers in the state. In 1844 Mrs. Stanton died and he moved his law practice to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he was married June 25, 1856, to Ellen M., daughter of James Hutchinson. He removed to Washington, D. C., in 1857, his increasing practice in the United States Supreme Court neces-sitating the change. Many cases committed to his charge were of national celebrity and included the litigations attending the first Erie war, the Wheeling Bridge case and the Manny and McCormick Reap-ing Machine contest. In the latter case he was leading counsel with Abraham Lincoln as one of his associates.
      Mr. Stanton succeeded Jeremiah S. Black as United States Attor-ney-General in the cabinet of President Buchanan in 1860. He favored the Wilmot Proviso and the emancipation of slaves. When South Carolina seceded from the Union, December 20, 1860, John B. Floyd, secretary of war, at a cabinet meeting, demanded the withdrawal of Major Anderson from Fort Sumter and of the national troops from Charleston Harbor. In reply Mr. Stanton made an indignant speech, bitterly denouncing Floyd and ending with the words, "Your conduct would cause Aaron Burr to hide his head. Your treason would bring the blush of shame to the cheek of Benedict Arnold." In consequence of this speech, Floyd tendered his resignation and was succeeded by Joseph Holt.
      On the retirement of Simon Cameron from the office of secretary of war, President Lincoln appointed Mr. Stanton to fill the vacancy January 15, 1862. Under his administration a rigorous military policy was favored. He was opposed to the plan of conducting the war adopted by General McClellan, and his opposition resulted in the recall of McClellan and his army from the Peninsula and the appointment of General Pope to the command of the Army of the Potomac. He dissuaded President Lincoln from sanctioning a conference between Grant and Lee fot the purpose of considering a negotiation of peace, and Lincoln is quoted as saying: "So great is my confidence in Stan-ton's judgment and patriotism that I never wish to take an important step without first consulting him." A few days before Lincoln's death, Stanton tendered his resignation of the portfolio of war, desiring to return to his practice at the bar, but at the earnest request of the President, he reconsidered it.
      On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated and Andrew Johnson succeeded to the presidency. President Johnson's administration opened with an unfortunate collision between the legislative and executive branches of the Government. The Freedman's Bureau Bill, the civil rights bill and the reconstruction acts, although supported by Stanton, were opposed by the President, and discord in the cabinet resulted. Stanton was requested to resign, but as Congress was not then in ses-sion he refused until the meeting of that body, and the President sus-pended him from office. On January 13, 1868, the Senate "refused to concur in such suspension" and General Grant, who had been acting secretary of war ad interim, relinquished the office to Stanton. The impeachment of Johnson followed and after the result of the trial was made known, Mr. Stanton resigned and resumed his practice of law. Upon General Grant's accession to the presidency, he appointed Stanton an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, and as a mark of respect, the nomination was confirmed by the Senate without the usual reference to the judiciary committee, but Mr. Stanton did not live to take his seat on the bench. In selecting names for a place in the Hall of Fame, October, 1900, his name in class M, Rulers and Statesmen, received six votes. He died in Washington, D. C., Decem-ber 24, 1869.
      The official and personal associations of Lincoln and Stanton are matters of never failing interest, and many are the versions of these, especially of their relations in the McCormick-Manny case in Cincin-nati. Perhaps the most authentic account is the one given by Mr. George Harding of Philadelphia, associate counsel with Stanton and Lincoln in this case, and published in "The Life of Abraham Lincoln" by Ida M. Tarbell. It appears that while Stanton was not responsible for crowding Lincoln out of the case his attitude toward the awkward lawyer from Illinois was not very cordial. Though Stanton had risen from humble estate, he was something of an aristocrat and a scholarly collegian. At this time he was not naturally attracted to a man of the Lincoln type. The meeting of the two in this case was in 1855.
      Stanton's contempt did not abate with the passing years. After Lincoln had been elected President Stanton characterized his administration in the early months as "disgraceful" and "imbecile." In the fall of 1861 Gen. George B. McClellan spoke of Stanton's hostile atti-tude. Among other things he said, "He [Stanton] never spoke of the President in any other way than as the `original gorilla,' and often said that Du Chaillu was a fool to wander all the way to Africa in search of what he could so easily have found at Springfield, Illinois."
      There was no question, however, of Stanton's loyalty to the Union and his supreme desire to suppress the rebellion. His eminent ability was also generally recognized. This led Lincoln to tender him the appointment of secretary of war, which Stanton accepted. In a con-versation with Don Piatt soon afterward Stanton declared that in this position he intended "to make Abe Lincoln President of the United States." In the cabinet he gradually changed his opinions in regard to Lincoln and became the warm personal friend and able defender of the President. When Abraham Lincoln fell at the hands of an assassin Stanton was at his bedside and broke the solemn hush that followed the last breath of the martyred President with the words that have become historic : "And now he belongs to the ages."

      References: "Edwin McMasters Stanton, the Autocrat of Rebellion, Emancipation and Reconstruction," by Frank Abial Flower. "In Memoriam: Edwin McMasters Stanton," by Joseph B. Doyle.


      «b»Edwin McMasters Stanton (1814-1869)
      The Laywer
      «/b»
      Edwin Stanton was born on December 19, 1814 in Stuebenville, Ohio, the first child of David and Lucy (Norman) Stanton who enforced their devout Methodist religious life on their four children.
      Ten years later Edwin suffered a asthmatic seizure that tortured him the rest of his life, sometimes to the point of convulsions. Every breath for him became a struggle and probably contributed to his arrogance in later life. On December 30, 1827 David Stanton died, Edwin was apprenticed to a bookseller James Turnbell. At Turnbell's store Stanton would get so engrossed in a book he would sometimes neglect the customers. The Turnbell's accepted Edwin's illnesses and his love of books and reading and allowed him to attend Latin School in the evenings. He worked three years at the book store. Securing a financial loan from a friend of his father, sixteen year Stanton left Steubenville for the first time in his life in 1830 to attend Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. At Kenyon College in addition to his studies Stanton took his turn working in the fields and on the road. The founder of the college, Bishop Philander Chase worked his students hard as was attested to by his nephew «u»Salmon P. Chase «/u», 'Uncle Philander expected every boy to do "most of whatever a boy could do on a farm." Financial hardships back in Stuebenville forced Stanton to withdraw from Kenyon two years later and return to Turnbull's bookstore.
      In the summer of 1833 cholera swept through eastern Ohio. A young lady Stanton had a warm friendship with, Ann Howard, the daughter of Stanton's landlord at his boarding house, served him dinner at the boarding house. Stanton returned to the bookstore. One hour later Ann collapsed, by 4 p.m. she was dead. Her family fearing contamination from the plague buried her immediately. When Stanton heard of this he was convinced that she had been buried alive. A young medical student, another boarder of the rooming house and Stanton by lamplight exhumed the coffin of the young lady and at the risk of contamination by the deadly disease Stanton examined the girl and made certain she had not been buried alived.
      Stanton studied law under his mother's lawyer Daniel L. Collier. A few months short of his twenty first birthday in August 1835 Stanton passed the bar exam in St. Clairville. Still under age he could not practice law so Collier gave him the responsibility for preparing court cases.
      After his birthday in December Stanton moved to Cadiz, formed a partnership with Chauncy Dewey and on May 31, 1836 on the 'happiest' day of his life married Mary Lamson. In 1838 he moved back to Steubenville.
      The partnership with Dewey dissolved and Stanton soon became partners with Judge Benjamin Tappen, a rising star in the Democratic party. Elected to the United States Senate Tappen turned over the bulk of his practice to Stanton.
      Stanton became active in the Cadiz Anti-slavery Society in 1837. His first child Lucy was born the same year. She would die in 1841 sending Stanton in the first of his deep depressions. Running as a Deomcratic Stanton was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Harrison County in 1837.
      As a lawyer Stanton enjoyed being the defender of justice especially when the villains were the Whigs or Democrats.
      The birth of a son Edwin Lamson Stanton in August displaced the grief of Lucy's death. During that winter Stanton became acquainted with a young idealist Cincinnati lawyer. Salmon P. Chase, was convinced that a third political party needed to be formed to work effectively to overthrow slavery. The opponents of slavery could gain the balance of power and then throw it's support to whichever party promised to take a anti-slavery stand. Stanton however tried to convince Chase that the Democratic Party offered the best policies for his anti-slavery efforts and promised to support them if Chase came to over. Neither men convinced the other but Chase and Stanton remained friends for a number of years. It was Chase Stanton in the dark days after his wife Lucy's death in 1844 and his brother Dr. Darwin Stanton's suicide in 1846 turned to. Chase understood Stanton's grieving. He too had suffered great lost. Chase was widowed twice and had buried three young children.
      The death of those he loved oppressed Stanton and soon the happy young man he was turned into a morose brooding man as he turned a stern face to the world.
      In the autumn of 1847 Stanton moved his law practice to Pittsburgh where he became partners with Charles Shater. Despite his strong feelings against slavery and his friendship with Chase, Stanton fearing that his support of the anti-slavery efforts would jeopardize his career refused to openly support anti-slavery. He was admitted to practice law before the United States Supreme court in February 1850. In 1850 Stanton had his first encounter with «u»Abraham Lincoln«/u» in a case which Lincoln was the attorney for the plaintiff in the McCormick Reaper Patent case. Less than impressed by Lincoln, Stanton and the other counsel for the defendant were rude to Lincoln. No one asked the Springfield lawyer to dine with them although they were all staying at the same hotel. June 1856 Stanton married for the second time. At forty-one he was wed to twenty-six year old Ellen Hutchison. Accepted a post in California as a land commissioner in 1857 for two years. Philip Barton Key, United States Attorney for the District of Columbia was killed by a friend of Stantons in 1859. Key had been having a romantic affair with the wife of Daniel Sickles. Stanton and co-counsel tried to prove that in an adulterer maybe be slain with impunity by the wronged man and at the time of the slaying Sickles was a deranged man and was not accountable for this actions. It was the first time in American jurisprudence that a plea of temporary insanity was relied upon. Stanton summing up the case for the defense, relied heavily on the sanctity of the marriage vows and a husbands right to keep his home inviolate against seducers. A verdict of not guilty was returned by the jury. Stanton reluctantly accepted the cabinet position of Attorney General in President Buchanans administration in 1860. His private practice was netting him $40,000 that year and promised to increase, accepting a cabinet post in the lame duck presidents cabinet meant a personal financial sacrifice for the materialistic Stanton. However his sense of patriotism was strong. The day Stanton accepted his new position the flag of the United States descended in South Carolina
      Unhappy with the president's indecisive actions with the commissioners from South Carolina over the actions taken with regards to Fort Sumter Stanton decided to take his own action. Deciding what was best for the Union he clandestinely became an informer to the Republicans, mainly Senator William H. Seward who informed President-elect Lincoln of what was being done in the white house. In later years Stanton defended himself against criticism that he violated his oath of office with the assertion that he was not only the President's servant but also the servant of the people and had a duty to his country to do so. All the while he not believe that if the war came it would last long.
      With the new administration of «u»President Lincoln«/u» came a new cabinet. Edwin Stanton stepped aside but was eager to serve the new president in whatever capacity he was called on do to. Incompetence by Secretary of War Simeon Camerom lead Lincoln to look for another Secretary of War, strong urging by Treasury Secretary Chase and Secretary of State William Seward secured the position for Stanton. Although it meant giving up his private practice and a salary of nearly fifty thousand dollars a year, Stanton accepted the post and a salary of eight thousand dollars on January 20,1862 as his patriotic duty.
      Immediately Stanton went to work cleaning the graft and favoritism of state contacts from the War Department. He required bids for all contracts to be in writing and with competitive bidding with loyal suppliers. One of the first important changes he made was to have the telegraph office moved to the War Department where he would know the news from the battlefield before anyone else. Even Lincoln had to go to the War office to get the news.
      With allegations that Stanton failed to provide adequate medical care and sufficient weapons for the Armies, Stanton enemies pressed for his removal from the cabinet in the summer of 1862.
      One of the issues Stanton refused to commit himself to was the fate of the Negroes. In his heart he agreed with the only member of the cabinet who though that the Negro question should not be avoided. The radial republican Chase insisted that it was senseless to combat a rebellion while upholding the evil that had caused it. Stanton again played a duel role while he sided with Chase he had to side with the majority North opinion if he were to get the needed supplies and men he needed. Winning the war was the single most important cause to Stanton as well as for Lincoln and this common desire bonded the two men close.
      On July 17, 1862 Lincoln signed into the law a second Confiscation Act which declared all fugitive, captured and abandoned slaves free and the act allowed the president to employ the Negroes in the suppression of the rebellion. Stanton recommended using Negro troops as fighting men but Lincoln did not think the time was right. So without the knowledge of the president Stanton allowed Union General David Hunter to arm Negroes on the agreement that Hunter would take the responsibility if questioned by Congress. Which he was and he did. Stanton went so far in denying knowledge of Hunters actions that he would not authorize pay for the black soldiers
      Lincoln reconsidered the need for enlistment of black troops in the Union Army in January 1863, as a military necessity and the logical consequence of emancipation. The issuance of the «u»Emancipation Proclamation«/u»and the allowance of Negro troops wiped out the major differences between Lincoln and Stanton. Negroes rushed to the join the Union Army in such force that Stanton had to create the Bureau pf Colored Troops in the war department. The secretary of war fixed the salaries of the colored troops at ten dollars a month with three dollars paid in clothing. The same white soldiers were paid thirteen dollars and clothing.
      Congress provided for a national draft in March of 1863. The conscription act was be administered by a military office, a Provost Marshal General of the Army, a separate bureau of the War Department. Unsuccessfully Stanton protested one feature of the enrollment act of 1863. It was not appealed until a year later. The act provided men to obtain an exemption for the draft by paying three hundred dollars commutation or furnishing a substitute.


      The draft riots of July in New York were mildly condoned by Governor Seymour. He justified his attitude towards the riots and his opposition to the conscription act on the grounds it was unconstitutional. Lincoln said he could not wait for the Supreme Court to decide the legality of the act, the war needed men.
      With the fall elections rapidly approaching the Republicans were worried about the slow progress of the war and the internal strife within the Cabinet since the resignation of the Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase had been accepted. Many people felt that if Lincoln were to replace his Secretary of War he would improve his chances at re-election. Lincoln in order to satisfy the radical republicans still hurting at Chases dismissal sacrificed Post master Montgomery Blair, Stantons enemy in the cabinet. The radicals concluded that Lincoln was their lone hope. The Democrats nominated General McClellan. Their platform called for immediate cessation of the war and a negotiated peace on the basis of the Federal Union of the States. Lincoln with his new vice presidential running mate Governor Andrew Johnson of Tennessee won decisively with 2,203,831 votes to McClellans 1,797,019.
      The death of Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney left open a position in the Supreme Court in October. Stanton had secretly desired the position of Chief Justice. Many supporters of Stanton urged the President to consider him to the Judgeship but Lincoln needed Stanton in the War Department. It was Grant fears of another Secretary of War that convinced Lincoln to keep Stanton in the War department and nominate Salmon P. Chase as Chief Justice.
      With the fall of Richmond Stanton tended his resignation as he had told Chase he would do as soon as Richmond fell and Lee surrendered. Lincoln refused and Stanton reluctantly agreed to stay on for awhile longer, although he longed for a long rest after the numerous illnesses he had suffered during the last year of the war.
      When Salmon P Chase was Secretary of the Treasury he had been accused of being lax in the way he handled the cotton permits which allowed some trading with the south to keep the cotton mills in the north active. The capture of a Confederate blockade runner in 1864 threatened to discredit Chase who had just been appointed Chief Justice and Lincoln would have suffered from the scandal; Chases son-in-law Senator William Sprague of Rhode Island was implicated in a scheme of running guns through though Texas were they were exchanged for cotton for Spragues cotton mill back in Cranston, Rhode Island. The act if true would have been treason. Stanton for the sake of his party, Lincoln and his friend Chase, hushed the matter and the damning evidence disappeared from the War Department.
      On the fateful morning of April 14, 1865, at the Paterson House on Tenth Street opposite the «u»Ford's Theater «/u» while Lincoln lay dying of an assassin's bullet, Stanton plotted his revenge against the man who committed the crime. The city was put on full military alert. Secretary of State William Seward had been assaulted in his home, someone had attempted to assassinate Seward by stabbing him. Guards were placed at the homes of high government officials. «i»'It was a night of horrors', «/i»Salmon P. Chase wrote in his diary.

      Stanton was credited with the quote "«i»he now belongs to the ages"«/i» upon the death of Lincoln.
      Stanton was convinced the murder of Lincoln was part of a conspiracy ,«i» planned and set on foot by rebels under pretense of a avenging the rebel cause«/i». Abandoning his plans to retire, Stanton was in control of the government. The Army was under his control, the new President Andrew Johnson was unsure of himself and Congress was not in session.
      Carrying on the business of still securing a peace, Lincoln's death was not far from Stanton's mind. He helped arranged the funeral details.
      While Sherman and Stanton were feuding over what the attitude of the government should be towards the conquered South and the rights that the government should accord the Negro, government agents swept down upon the Surratt boardinghouse and arrest everyone in the place. Arrested for knocking on the door of the boardinghouse while the Government troops were there was Lewis Payne. Arrested on suspicion he proved to be the man who had attacked Seward.
      Also arrested later in other places were co-conspirators Samuel Arnold and Michael O'Laughlin. George Atzerodt had failed to carry out his assignment to assassinate Andrew Johnson, he was arrest as was Edmund Spangler a scene changer at Ford Theater. Dr. Samuel Madd who treated «u»John Wilkes Booth «/u» broken leg.
      Stanton ordered Payne, O'Laughlin Spangler and Atzerodt to be held below desk on the monitor Montauk. The other men were held in the hold of the monitor Saugus. Mrs. Surratt was held at the Carroll Annex of the Old Capital Prison. The men prisoners all had an iron ball attached to his leg by a heavy chair and wore handcuffs joined by an iron bar. Canvas bag hoods with a hole cut in it for the men to eat and breathe, tied around his neck. They were not allowed to see. Stanton promised to have the bags removed when physicians attending the men complained the hoods might drive them insane. Stanton also promised to allow the prisoners might have daily exercise and reading material, but none of the Secretary of War's promises were ever kept.
      On April 20, Stanton offered a $50,000 reward for the capture of John Wilkes Booth and an additional reward of $25,000 for the capture of Herold and John Surratt.
      Six days later on April 26, Stanton was awakened with the news that Booth had been killed. Shot, contrary to orders, in a burning barn by a cavalry officer Sergeant Boston Corbett. Herold was also captured at the Port Conway Virginia barn. He accompanied Booth's body back to Washington.
      The body of the assassin was buried in a secret unmarked grave beneath the floor of the Washington arsenal which at one time served as a federal penitentiary.
      President Andrew Johnson still convinced that high-placed Confederate officials had been involved in the plot offered a reward of $100,000 for the capture of Jefferson Davis.


      On June 30 1865, a military commission found all the prisoners guilty of conspiring with the Confederates to murder Lincoln, Johnson, Seward and Grant. Payne, Herold Atzerodt, and Mrs. Surrett were sentenced to hang They were sentenced to be executed on July 7, 1865.. O'Laughlin, and Dr. Mudd were sentenced to hard labor for life and Spangler received six years. Stanton evaluated the new president as a man of vigorous physique and moral courage. The man from Tennessee had dared defy the secessionist of his state and spoke out for the Union. In 1868 things changed Stanton's opinion of Johnson. Stanton's removal from the cabinet by Lincoln's successor Andrew Johnson provided an opportunity for Stanton's Radical Republican Congressional colleagues to impeach the President, whose Reconstruction policies they had long opposed. Returning to private life he resumed his private law practice and in the following elections he campaigned for Ulysses S. Grant. Stanton pleaded with President Grant to pass over this sick spoilist and asthmatic patriot", for a position on the Supreme Court bench. On December 19 Stanton was confir.med as a Justice -President Ulysses Grant appointed Stanton to the U.S. Supreme Court. Four days later before he could assume his duties on the bench he died presumably from complications caused by his lifelong asthmatic condition on Dec. 24, 1869. Hopefully he rests in peace at the Oak Hill Cemetery in Georgetown, just outside of Washington, D.C.